cognitive therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Cognitive therapy is a psychosocial (both psychological and social) therapy that assumes that faulty thought patterns (called cognitive patterns) cause maladaptive behaviour and emotional responses. The treatment focuses on changing thoughts in order to solve psychological and personality problems. Behaviour therapy is also a goal-oriented, therapeutic approach, and it treats emotional and behavioural disorders as maladaptive learned responses that can be replaced by healthier ones with appropriate training. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) integrates features of behaviour modification into the traditional cognitive restructuring approach.


Cognitive-behavioural therapy attempts to change clients' unhealthy behaviour through cognitive restructuring (examining assumptions behind the thought patterns) and through the use of behaviour therapy techniques.
cognitive-behavioural therapy is a treatment option for a number of mental disorders, including depression, dissociative identity disorder , eating disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, hypochondriasis , insomnia , obsessive-compulsive disorder , and panic disorder without agoraphobia .


Cognitive-behavioural therapy may not be appropriate for all patients. Patients with significant cognitive impairments (patients with traumatic brain injury or organic brain disease, for example) and individuals who are not willing to take an active role in the treatment process are not usually good candidates.

In cognitive-behavioural therapy, the therapist works with the patient to identify the thoughts that are causing distress, and employs behavioural therapy techniques to alter the resulting behaviour. Patients may have certain fundamental core beliefs, known as schemas, that are flawed and are having a negative impact on the patient's behaviour. and functioning.
For example, a patient suffering from depression may develop a social phobia because he is convinced that he is uninteresting and impossible to love. A cognitive-behavioural therapist would test this assumption by asking the patient to name family and friends who care for him and enjoy his company. By showing the patient that others value him, the therapist exposes the irrationality of the patient's assumption and also provides a new model of thought for the patient to change his previous behaviour pattern (i.e., I am an interesting and likeable person, therefore I should not have any problem making new social acquaintances). Additional behavioural techniques such as conditioning (the use of positive and/or negative reinforcements to encourage desired behaviour) and systematic desensitization (gradual exposure to anxiety-producing situations in order to extinguish the fear response) may then be used to gradually reintroduce the patient to social situations.